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About the Author James L. Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. A Short History of the Royal Navy: Naval histories often stop short at the death of Nelson.


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It was a spontaneous thing, the army coming together with no formal plan or forethought. The Greatest Events. I went thither. Genl Warren was among them. They were consulting of the formation of an army. I expressed the opinion which at the moment occurred to me.

As if the bloodshed at Lexington and Concord and the siege of Boston had not created issues enough, on the very morning the Second Continental Congress convened, about eighty Green Mountain Boys under the joint command of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured Fort Ticonderoga with its small garrison of British regulars in the colony of New York.

Events, it seemed, were galloping like a runaway horse, and Congress was just trying to hang on. If the letter was meant to suggest that the Continental Congress assume the management of the army, it was too subtle for the delegates. After considering the letter and the depositions, as well as an address to the inhabitants of Great Britain that Warren had also included, they resolved to have the documents published in newspapers and then went on to other business.

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Benjamin Church with a less subtle message to the Continental Congress. It was read by that body on June 2. Warren suggested a remedy to prevent further trembling. But like the Provincial Congress, the Continental Congress was struggling to clarify the breadth of its own authority and the nature of the war that seemed to be breaking out around it. And yet, they did. There is, oddly, no record of a formal decision by the Continental Congress to assume the management of the army.

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It appears that the Congress took on the responsibility bit by bit, like a bather easing himself into scalding water. Thus, even before the committee began reviewing the request of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, the troops assembled around Boston had become the Continental Army. On June 9 the committee charged to consider the letter from the Massachusetts Provincial Congress met and reported.

Rather, it touched on another issue raised in the letter, the fact that Massachusetts had no official government—or at least the rebellious part of its population did not. There was no question at this point that the army surrounding Boston was the Army of the United Colonies. But one of the largest issues had yet to be resolved: Who would be the commander-in-chief? Ward was forty-eight years old, a veteran of the French and Indian War, during which he had risen to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Despite his experience, he was not considered competent to continue in command of the army, and that feeling was reinforced after the battle of Bunker Hill.

Of the three, Washington had the least military experience. Horatio Gates was the son of a butler whose employer, the Duke of Leeds, had helped secure a place in the British army for the boy. After quitting the army he settled in Virginia until the outbreak of the Revolution. Service in the regular British army, as opposed to service in an American militia or provincial force, was considered by Amer- The Greatest Events. Despite his curriculum vitae and the general esteem in which he was held, however, Gates was not one of the front-runners for the position of commander-in-chief.

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Charles Lee had a better military pedigree than Gates, certainly better than Washington. His father had been a general in the regular British army, and Lee had followed in his footsteps, if not as far.

George Washington Creates Cunning Plan to Evade British - American Revolution

Lee had served with distinction in several engagements, had risen to lieutenant colonel, and had fought with the Polish army after the conclusion of the French and Indian War. Retired from the British army and sensing opportunity in the brewing trouble in the colonies, Lee had arrived in America in and soon made himself conspicuous with anyone who might do him any good.

He positioned himself as the greatest military mind on the continent, convincing more than a few that such was the case. Charles Lee was eccentric to say the least, with a poor sense of personal hygiene and a vocabulary more resembling a mule skinner than an officer and a gentleman.


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  8. From the time the Second Continental Congress convened, the New England delegates in particular were under great pressure from their constituency to adopt the army. The choice was Lee or Washington. I revere him as an Officer and wish he had been born an American. One of the core themes of the Revolution was the widening gulf between the Americans and the British, and the United Colonies simply could not accept an Englishman at the head of the American army. Washington from the beginning envisioned an aggressive war against the British, but both Lee and Gates argued for avoiding any major set-piece battles, which they did not think American troops could win.

    Both Lee and Gates would serve as general officers but end the war in disgrace. At the time of the Revolution, Boston Harbor was a tricky maze of islands, shallows, and narrow channels. Less than half a mile northeast of the town were Noddles and Hog islands, both large and mostly uninhabited. The two islands, along with most of the distinctive features of the harbor around Boston, have melded into one large urban center. In the summer of , Noddles and Hog islands were used mostly for growing hay and grazing cattle, both of which the British needed desperately.

    The islands were susceptible to attack, particularly as the water that separated them from the mainland was only about knee-deep at low tide, and the rebels planned to exploit that vulnerability. A week earlier Graves had successfully removed several tons of hay from another island farther south in the harbor before Americans had driven off the British and burned the rest.

    In the early-morning darkness of May 27, unseen by either of the patrolling guardboats, around six hundred American soldiers splashed through the shallows from the small town of Chelsea to Hog Island. While some of the men began driving the stock from that island, others waded across the narrow channel to Noddles, where hundreds of sheep and several cows and horses were grazing.

    They fell back from Noddles and Hog islands across the shallow water to Chelsea. The schooner had worked as far up shallow Chelsea Creek as she could, and Thomas Graves was under orders from his uncle not to remain in that narrow waterway once the tide began to fall.

    erstwhile.jeamland.net/las-mujeres-no-son-tontas-un-libro.php He nearly made it. It was early evening as the schooner passed the middle of Noddles Island, just off the town of Winnesimit on the mainland. Then the wind died away. At night about went down to Lichmore Point. Then, with the tide ebbing, the Diana touched bottom. It was no use.

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    The tide was falling fast, and the Diana settled deeper and deeper into the mud. Finally, at low water, around 3 a. The column of smoke would have been clearly visible from the waterfront in Boston. Worse, though Graves seemed not to understand or at least not to acknowledge it, the Americans had managed to drive off more than a thousand sheep and lambs from the two islands, livestock crucial to maintaining the British presence in Boston.

    He would go on to command the seventy-four-gun Bedford in the Battle of the Virginia Capes in September , in which his cousin, the unfortunate Admiral Thomas Graves, conceded victory to the French and doomed Lord Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown. Samuel Graves himself did not fare so well, at least not in the eyes of his fellow officers.

    This is not the most agreeable thing that could have happened. Firewood Food and forage were not the only necessities lacked by the troops and civilians in Boston. The only other option was coal, which could only be had from England and which, because of difficulties in transport, never proved a viable alternative. Wood was needed to heat the baking ovens that produced the bread. With fresh meat virtually nonexistent, the residents of Boston were forced to rely on salted beef and pork that might have been a year or more in the cask.

    Salt meat had to be thoroughly boiled just to render it edible, which was about the best one could hope for. Tons of salt provisions were consumed every day, and an extraordinary amount of wood was required to boil it all. Ideally the British army would have had on hand at all times a sixmonth supply of provisions, but even a month before Lexington and Concord the army in Boston had been running short in every category.

    How the American Revolution Went to Sea

    Machias was a small outpost huddled around the wide Machias River, a town of around eighty families, a number of which were quite large, Noddles Island 23 and one hundred single men. What little farming the inhabitants did was for subsistence, and a severe drought in the fall of had prevented the people from laying in sufficient stores to get them through the winter and following spring.

    Only the arrival of a few ships over the winter, carrying provisions, had kept the town alive In late May , a number of Machias inhabitants sent a petition to the Massachusetts Provincial Congress seeking relief from their increasingly desperate situation. The rebellious Americans were less enthusiastic about Jones. Icabod Jones, an infamous Tory.

    As Graves understood it, the locals had salvaged the guns and were ready to use them against their former owners. Icabod Jones approached Thomas Gage with his proposal. Some years later, Admiral Graves would sum up the entire experience: Mr Ichabod Jones, who, having some property about Machias, imagined from his acquaintances with the People there that he could furnish the Army with a considerable quantity of Firewood.

    But the event proved how totally mistaken Mr Jones was in the temper of his Countrymen, and also shewed what we had generally to expect. She carried only swivel guns mounted on the rails and muskets, pistols, and cutlasses for the crew. She had on board four 3-pounder carriage guns, but for some reason they were stored down in the hold, not mounted.


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    He was also to endeavor to secure the guns salvaged from Halifax and to assure whoever had salvaged them that they would be paid for their effort.