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Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract A small series of surfactants based on methyl oleate and glyceroe was synthesized. Citing Literature. Volume 9 , Issue 4 December Pages Related Information.
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Manilal Dahanayake (Author of Industrial Utilization of Surfactants)
Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. That was explained from the regular solution theory point of view. In the regular solution theory, the molecules in the mixed system are assumed to be of comparable volume, completely interchangeable.
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In case of X 1 higher than X ideal , the system shows nonideal behaviour synergism. The synergistic effect occurs due to the difference in hydrophobicity of the mixed surfactant. The micellization occurs at lower cmc than cmc 1 and cmc 2 ; thus due to the richness of CTAB in the bulk of the solution, a high participation of CTAB molecules in the formed mixed micelles occurs.
Due to the hydrophobicity factor and the incompatibility between the decyl and hexadecyl hydrophobic chains and the repulsion between head groups.
tax-marusa.com/order/powidutuq/localiser-mon-telephone-meme-eteint.php Increasing the difference between the hydrophobic chain length of the cationic and nonionic components, i. That is called the hydrophobic effect. The partially high negative charged head group is due to the high inductive effect of the tetradecyl and hexadecyl chains.
The more hydrophobic component is preferentially adsorbed at the interface and consequently pumps the less hydrophobic components to the bulk. Hence, its contribution in the formed mixed micelles increased consequently. On the other hand, lower cmc value of DHPO 0. That suggests the continuous adsorption of CTAB molecules to the interface by increasing its mole fraction. The existence of synergism in mixtures of surfactants depends not only on the strength of interaction occurs between the different molecules, but also on the associated properties of each surfactant in the mixture.
The highest synergistic effect in the latest system is attributed to the homogeneity between the hydrophobic chains of the different surfactants participated in the formed mixed micelles. Consideration of tail-tail interaction was neglected by Rubingh in the treatment and explanation of the synergistic mechanism. The most effective parameter explains the extent of interaction between the different surfactants incorporated in the mixed micelles is the activity coefficient f 1 , f 2 , which relates to the interaction parameter throughout Equations The obtained values of f 1 , f 2 are less than unity showing the nonideality of the systems.
Decreasing the values of f 1 , f 2 from unity indicates the low interaction between the different components incorporated in the mixed system. This supported by the gradual decrease in f 1 , f 2 values by the same trend. The increase of f 1 values indicates the presence of some sort of repulsion between the different molecules.
That decreases the stability of the formed mixed system than the maximum values. The gradual decrease of f 1 values indicates the increase of the system stability, which assists the mixed micelles formation. The orientation of adsorbed surfactant molecules at the air-water interface decreases the surface tension of the aqueous phase. The decrease in surface tension occurs due to break down of hydrogen bonds at the surface. Increasing the adsorbed surfactant concentration leads to further decrease in the surface tension values.
The amounts of adsorbed surfactants per unit area at various concentrations can be calculated using Gibbs adsorption equation. The number of species at the interface vary with the surfactant bulk concentration n were taken as 2. The maximum surface adsorption concentration obtained corresponds to the maximum packing and strong tighten surfactant molecules at the interface.
That can be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction which pumps the molecules to the interface, which leads to increase the surface concentration and the area occupied at the interface decreased due to the compactness between the molecules. Those values corresponded to the ideality mixing region of the different mixed systems.
The decrease of A min by increasing the cationic mole fraction suggests the compactness of the mixed monolayer at the interface, which reveals the homogeneity of different components at the interface. Mixed surfactant systems showed better micellar and interfacial properties than the individual surfactant solutions. The critical micelle concentrations of the different surfactant mixtures were lower than the individual surfactants used. This encourage us to study the behaviors of CTAB-dimethyl alkyl phosphine oxide mixed systems as primer systems used in different biological and industrial applications.
The results of the study showed the following topics:. The critical micelle concentration values are lower than both cationic and nonionic components. The mole fraction of the cationic component is always higher than the ideal values. The high negative values of mixing free energy showed the stability of the mixed micelles than the individually formed micelles.
Graciaa, A. Motomura, K. In ref.
Christian, S. Sehgal, P. Acta , 59 , Dan, A. Mixed surfactant systems showed better micellar and interfacial properties than the individual surfactant solutions. The critical micelle concentrations of the different surfactant mixtures were lower than the individual surfactants used. This encourage us to study the behaviors of CTAB-dimethyl alkyl phosphine oxide mixed systems as primer systems used in different biological and industrial applications.
The results of the study showed the following topics:.
The critical micelle concentration values are lower than both cationic and nonionic components. The mole fraction of the cationic component is always higher than the ideal values. The high negative values of mixing free energy showed the stability of the mixed micelles than the individually formed micelles. Graciaa, A. Motomura, K. In ref. Christian, S. Sehgal, P. Acta , 59 , Dan, A. B , , Rosen, M. Holland, P. Khan, A.