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Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed. Process for recovering products from oil shale. A process is claimed for recovering hydrocarbon products from a body of fragmented or rubblized oil shale. The process includes initiating a combustion zone adjacent the lower end of a body of oil shale and using the thermal energy therefrom for volatilizing the shale oil from the oil shale above the combustion front.

Improved recovery of hydrocarbon products is realized by refluxing the heavier fractions in the volatilized shale oil. The heavier fractions are refluxed by condensing the heavier fractions and allowing the resulting condensate to flow downwardly toward the combustion front.

The carbonaceous residue is burned in the combustion front to supply the thermal energy. The temperature of the combustion front is maintained by regulating input of oxygen to the combustion zone. The process also includes sweeping the volatilized products from the rubblized oil shale with a noncombustible gas. The flow rate of sweep gas is also controlled to regulate the temperature of the combustion front.

Galoter process

The recovered products can be enriched with hydrogen by using water vapor as part of the noncombustible sweep gas and cracking the water vapor with the hot carbon in the combustion front to produce hydrogen and an oxide of carbon. Apparatus for oil shale retorting. A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature.

The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage. Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic foreland basins were formed under compression tectonic conditions, whereas Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rift valleys were formed through extension tectonics. Also, large areas of China were affected by these tectonic events. The sedimentary basins in China host prolific petroleum and oil shale resources.

Similarly, Mongolian basins contain hundreds meter thick oil shale as well as oil fields. However, petroleum system and oil shale geology of Mongolia remain not well known due to lack of survey. Mongolian oil shale deposits and occurrences, hosted in Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous units, are classified into thirteen oil shale -bearing basins, of which oil shale resources were estimated to be Bt. Jurassic oil shale has been identified in central Mongolia, while Lower Cretaceous oil shale is distributed in eastern Mongolia.

Lithologically, Jurassic and Cretaceous oil shale -bearing units up to m thick are similar, composed mainly of alternating beds of oil shale , dolomotic marl, siltstone and sandstone, representing lacustrine facies. The numbers indicate that the oil shales are high quality, oil prone source rocks. The Tmax values of samples range from to , suggesting immature to early oil window maturity levels.

PI values are consistent with this interpretation, ranging from 0. According to bulk geochemistry data, Jurassic and Cretaceous oil shales are identical, high quality petroleum source rocks. However, previous studies indicate that known oil fields in Eastern Mongolia were originated from Lower Cretaceous oil shales.

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Thus, further detailed studies on Jurassic oil shale and its. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources.

The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Geochemistry of Israeli oil shales - A review. The oil shales in Israel are widely distributed throughout the country. Outcrops are rare and the information is based on boreholes data. In places, part of the phosphorite layer below the oil shales is also rich in kerogen. The host rocks are biomicritic limestones and marls, in which the organic matter is generally homogeneously and finely dispersed. Current reserves of oil shales in Israel are about 3, million tons, located in the following deposits: Zin, Oron, Ef'e, Hartuv and Nabi-Musa.

The 'En Bokek deposit, although thoroughly investigated, is of limited reserves and is not considered for future exploitation. Other potential areas, in the Northern Negev and along the Coastal Plain are under investigation. Future successful utilization of the Israeli oil shales , either by fluidizid-bed combustion or by retorting will contribute to the state's energy balance.

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation. A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale.

The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent billion barrels of oil , leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits.

The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production.

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In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration.

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Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions.

A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Colorado oil shale : the current status, October A general background to oil shale and the potential impacts of its development is given. A map containing the names and locations of current oil shale holdings is included. The history, geography, archaeology, ecology, water resources, air quality, energy resources, land use, sociology, transportation, and electric power for the state of Colorado are discussed. Projected shale oil production capacity to is presented.

Oil shale retorting and combustion system. The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air.

In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system. Chemical composition of shale oil. This paper reports on shale oils obtained by nitrogen retorting of North Carolina, Cleveland, Ohio, Colorado, Rundle, Stuart, and Condor oil shales that have been chemically characterized by g.

After species identification, chemical compositions of the shale oils have been related to the geological origins of the parent shales. Based on the characteristics observed in the chromatograms, eight semi-quantitative parameters have been used to describe the chromatograms. Six of these parameters describe the chromatograms. Six of these parameters describe the relative abundance and distribution of straight chain alkanes and alkenes in the chromatograms.

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting. Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing.


A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control. Process concept of retorting of Julia Creek oil shale. A process is proposed for the above ground retorting of the Julia Creek oil shale in Queensland.

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The oil shale characteristics, process description, chemical reactions of the oil shale components, and the effects of variable and operating conditions on process performance are discussed. The process contains a fluidized bed combustor which performs both as a combustor of the spent shales and as a heat carrier generator for the pyrolysis step.

System for utilizing oil shale fines. A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal.

The system includes a cyclone retort 20 which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet 30 through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil , and having a second outlet 32 through which spent shale fines are removed.